This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles. ASTM D Standard Test Method for Air Permeability of Textile Fabrics. What This Test is Used For: This test method covers the measurement of the air. Home; ASTM D standard by ASTM International, 01/01/ View all Printed Edition + PDF;; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart.
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Save this Book to Read air permeability astm d 96 standard test method for PDF eBook at our Online Library. Get air permeability astm. ISO - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or written specifically based upon the Frazier Tester: ASTM D, ASTM F Download and print out the webinar slides . Wind Resistant. ASTM D Air Permeability ASTM F Temperature Ratings on Cold Weather. Protective.
Veterans expect that smart clothing technologies will be launched in the market within the next five to ten years. Hence there exists an absolute necessity to understand these new fabrics and their technologies. Testing of fabrics hitherto limited to traditional fabrics such as apparel, home furnishings and some varieties of technical textiles may not help in the long run to understand the properties of these new fabrics.
New methods of testing and evaluation for intelligent and smart fabrics will become extremely important in the industry as the future relies more and more on these textiles. We are still far from taking full advantage of the potential of information technology services, but the future for fully soft electronic products is very attractive and requires a different, but interesting, design approach.
The geometric and mechanical properties of textiles large flexible area differ strongly from those of conventional electronics and can create new computer designs and architectures. It covers the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine, physiology, psychology and textile technology.
Three important physical parameters that are instrumental in the physiological processes of fabrics are heat transmission, moisture transport and air permeability Welfers, The physiological properties of fabrics relate to what the fabric or garment feels like when it is worn next to the skin, such as too warm, too cold, sweaty, allergic, prickly, etc.
The psychological properties include mainly the aesthetics of the fabric such as colour, fashion, prejudice, suitability for an occasion, garment style, fabric finish, etc. Smith, The so-called microclimate that prevails there is defined by definite physical and physiological conditions. There are physiological and psychological positive comfort sensations but these tend to be more individualistic and less frequently noticed in the wearer of the garment.
Therefore, in the assessment of a fabric or garment for a particular end use, the comfort of that product is considered to be very important. Fabric testing therefore needs to address the comfort properties of fabrics. These depend largely on the quality of the fabrics used and the making-up process Potluri et al. However, a more expensive fabric does not necessarily result in a better-quality garment.
The colour and design of a fabric, along with drape, contribute to the aesthetic appeal of a garment. During the past few years, the demand for quality textiles has increased globally, with the steady growth in population and income resulting in a rise in production and usage of different types of fibres, yarns and fabrics.
To compete, especially in the world market now, there is greater demand for consistency in quality rather than for quantity of products. Today, quality assurance programmes have become necessary for survival not only in textiles but in every branch of industry.
Testing of fabrics has attained an important position in the textile industry due to the development of new types of fabrics for various apparel, furnishing and industrial applications.
Fabrics undergo a number of deformations during their use and a systematic analysis of the defects occurring in the fabrics is a key role played by the testing department.
The importance of fabric testing lies in the fact that in order to control the product and its cost, testing the performance of the goods becomes absolutely necessary.
Fabric testing would benefit many in the industry and those involved in the export business. Professionals developing new fabrics use results from testing in selecting the right raw materials Shaw, Designers who create new fashions for the highfashion industry are sometimes confronted with the problem of selection of the right quality of fabric for their garments.
Fabric testing results would help them to understand the construction, properties and behaviour of fabrics for a particular end use. The textile scientist also stands to gain from a thorough understanding of fabric testing and analysis. Although one may be a specialist in textile chemistry or textile engineering, an understanding of how physical tests relate to fabric performance and consumer expectations is a necessary prerequisite to successful development of new textile fabrics.
There are various stages in which fabric has to undergo quality inspection and this would reduce the burden on management to supply a fabric consignment with minimum defects. Proper testing on a regular basis can make the difference in the success or failure of a product and indeed the whole business. There are a number of points in the production cycle at which testing may be carried out to improve the product or to prevent sub-standard fabric progressing further in the cycle.
Fabric testing becomes important from the point of view of the following considerations. However, in order to produce a quality product, manufacturers need to have a definition of quality which will allow them to measure how far their products meet the requirements.
Quality can be defined in two broad dimensions: perceived quality and functional quality. The perceived quality supports the corporate image, creates interest and generates an initial purchase. The buying is done on the basis of three basic parameters — the item looks good, feels good and offers good value for money — whereas the functional quality is related to the supplier and involves make, size and performance.
The buyer is responsible for selecting the best product on the basis of perceived quality Garner, The supplier must produce this product and also achieve the functional aspects of quality.
Quality control refers to the performance on a periodic basis of certain tests designed to measure the characteristics of the raw or processed material. Regular controls on the quality of fabric produced at every stage of manufacture become most important for the fabric to live up to international standards. If the material is incorrect or sub-standard then it is impossible to produce the required quality of final fabric. Proper selection of fabrics becomes highly important for fashion designers, retailers, exporters and scientists and a thorough checking of fabrics for defects and construction particulars is a key step in preventing rejection of final consignments.
Fabric manufacture consists of a number of separate processes such as winding, warping, sizing and weaving before the final fabric is produced.
Knitted and non-woven fabrics form a separate section and all these processes demand the checking of quality at every stage of their production. The final product has to be checked for the required properties so that unsuitable material can be rejected or appropriate adjustments made to the production conditions.
Its aim is to maintain, within known tolerances, certain specified properties of the product at the level at which they have been set. A quality fabric for these purposes is defined as one whose properties meet or exceed the set specifications.
Besides the need to carry out the tests correctly, successful monitoring of production also requires the careful design of appropriate sampling procedures and the use of statistical analysis to make sense of the results.
Online production monitoring systems monitor fabric quality and raise product packing efficiency. Using these systems it is possible to inspect the final product and collect all fabric defect data. In addition, online production monitoring tools provide an organization with a complete inventory of defects, while the fabric is being inspected on the folding table.
They record all the defects, their location on the roll and their severity. Based on the final product specifications, it is possible to present an optimal cutting— mending master plan. Winter clothing, however, should be less permeable to protect the human body from cold weather Sundaramoorthy et al. In some products, such as tents, sleeping bags, etc.
Towel fabric require high air permeability for bathing gown and slippers Petrulyte and Baltakyte, , Singh and Verma, Warp and weft density are seen as the most important features affecting air permeability.
The ability to limit or permit passage of airflow through the fabric depends primarily on the thickness, porosity, structure and geometry of the fabric.
Air permeability increases with an increase in porosity and a decrease in the thickness of the fabric Singh and Verma, The porosity is related to structural and geometric properties such as the type of yarns, warp and weft density, thickness etc. It determines thermal insulation efficiency and thermal comfort of garment Angelova et al. Pile height has a significant effect on air permeability capacity of towel fabrics.
Petrulyte and Baltakyte have investigated air permeability of various terry fabrics regarding the finishing process. Durur and Oner have investigated on the comfort properties of the towel fabrics and have found that an increase in pile height causes a decrease in air permeability rate and this decrease is important statistically.
Cotton fiber is the most used natural fiber in the towel production. Bamboo fiber is also used frequently in the production of towels in recent years. Cotton fiber towels have high absorbency and softness. Bamboo fiber began to be commonly used in textiles in recent years. The natural antibacterial elements in the bamboo fiber keep the bacteria away from the bamboo fabrics.
Bamboo fiber is a regenerated cellulosic fiber. Bamboo fiber is softer than cotton.
It has a much better moisture absorption and air permeability with various micro gaps and micro holes Hussain et al. Bamboo fiber garments can absorb and evaporate human sweat in a split second, as if they were breathing. Bamboo fiber makes it suitable for anti-ultraviolet natural summer clothes. Bamboo fiber products are environmentally friendly and biodegradable.
A review of the literature revealed that previous studies mainly concentrated on the investigation of water absorption properties of terry towel fabrics, while only a limited number of studies analyzed air permeability properties. Table 1 indicates unevenness and strength properties of cotton and bamboo pile yarns used in towel fabrics.
Every item listed in the table is described under the table. Table 2 indicates pile height values of towel fabrics. For pile heights, sub index references from 1 to 6 were used and the codes are presented in Table 2. These codes are also used in Figure 1. Analysis of variance ANOVA was used to analyze interactions among independent variables and how these interactions impact the dependent variable.