Waffen-SS sported distinctive sS rank and unit insignia Similarly, although the SS were cligible for all the usual political and military awards of the Third. Reich. publications over the years, including Men-At-Arms The US Army , and Men-At-Arms The Waffen-SS. He is also a keen re-enactor, and lives. The Waffen. SS in Color. By Blaine Taylor. This portrait reveals Himmler's self- view: a confident man in masterful control of his ever-expanding SS empire.
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Winterhilfswerk. Wehrkreis. Waffen SS. NS.-Motor Corps. NS.-War Victims' Associa- tion. NS.-Teachers' League. NS.-Lawyers' League. NS.-League for Physical. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | A total of Danes joined the Waffen SS during the Second World War. They served primarily on the Eastern Front, often fighting under appalling. PDF | In the international history of the Holocaust one event stands out as a collectors and a number of former Danish Waffen SS volunteers.
The Axis forces eventually decided that the growth of the NOP had begun to pose a significant security threat and therefore had to be severely put down. Even though the operation affected Banija to a limited degree only, it had a profound impact on the general developments due to its devastating effect on civilians. Beograd, , pp. On 18 December Hitler therefore ordered the destruction of the NOP in what became one of the largest single counter-in- surgency operation during the Second World War.
NOP divisions were more akin to regiments and brigades during the initial phases of their or- ganization. Many of them grew substantially, some numbering , soldiers by The difference between a unit of NOV units and those of the POJ was that the latter were territorial- ly based and operated in a specific region of the country, while the former moved wherever the central command wished. The enemy is using fanatical communist fighters in the struggle, who do not re- frain from any type of violence.
This is more than ever before a matter of life and death.
This struggle has nothing in common with chivalry and the regulations of the Geneva Conventions. If this struggle against the bands, in the East as well as in the Balkans, is not carried out with utmost brutality, then we will for the foreseeable future not have the resources at our disposal, with which to be able to stop this plague.
The troops therefore have the right and duty in this struggle to use any means possible without limitations, including against women and children, as long as it leads to success. The 7th and 8th Divisions succeeded in holding their ground for a while before being forced to retreat into the interior of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Soldiers who had lost contact with their units and political activists instead began the process of strengthening and forming new Partisan units. By early February, these had increased to almost combatants, who had the task of performing hit-and-run attacks against enemy forces in the area of Kostajnica-Petrinja-Glina-Dvor.
This was done through a combination of enrolling more forces into the Par- tisan detachments, but also by using 8th Division to attack and constantly harass the enemy from the west. XII, book 2 Vojno-istoriski institut jugoslovenske armije: Beograd, , doc.
Beograd, , p. He began the counter-insurgency operations Istrien and Wolkenbruch in late September, in other words just a few week after the arrival of Nordland to the region, and they lasted until early November. The reason for its disbanding is unclear, but probably had to do with a lack of military experience among the men, considering that the Italian battalion made up of POWs was left intact.
As it turned out, however, the majority of Wiking never arrived, which means the force included 13, troops. The Nordland regiments were spread out in an arch from Generalski Stol south of Karlovac, over Sisak to an artillery regiment in Dubica close to the Jasenovac concentration camp.
Insofar as the Danish regiments are concerned, they were positioned just south of Sisak in Glina 1st Rgt. However, the fact that the unit was rather fresh and not yet fully equipped presented a problem. The division is immobile. It can be used for lighter intelligence gathering and security operations.
The Division is not ready for military combat. It would lead to a breakdown for the Division and to unavoidable high losses in men and material.
As pointed out by Emberland and Kott, there were even examples of Dutch- men, Swedes and members of Nordland belonging to the Volksdeutsche minority that deserted during this period of time; Emberland, Terje and Matthew Kott, Himmlers Norge: The basic idea was that one should avoid frontal combat with a vastly superior enemy and instead focus on hit-and-run attacks in its rear. This was because the KPJ realized that in order to build a strong and experienced army one had to minimize the damage on morale that would happen with military losses, and therefore con- sidered hit-and-run attacks to have a dual positive purpose.
As reported by the politcommissar at the HQ of the Banija POJ on 13 October, severe countermeasures were undertaken against deserters in order to avoid further deterioration: A few days ago we executed five rebels [pobunjenika] from 2nd Battalion by firing squad.
They were executed in front of the entire unit, after we had first explained why they were to be executed and about their work. Insofar as we are able to ascertain, the Partisans are very pleased with this punishment.
Borbe u Crnoj Gori III, book 1 Vojnoistorijski institut jugoslovenske armije: XII, book 3 Vojnoistorijski institut jugoslovenske armije: However, it was not part of any policy, but generally carried out by rogue elements that sometimes accompanied the advance of Partisan units, or by NOP soldiers in desperate need of food. The NOP leadership tried to clamp down on this type of activity, since it risked having an adverse effect on popular attitudes towards the movement.
One should therefore not be surprised that politcommissars continuously surveyed their units in order to map out the socio-economic and ethnic structure in each one of them. Some of these lists have been preserved and show that the structure of the organization had not yet reached the desired level.
According to a roster of the Banija POJ from 27 October , workers made up a mere fraction of the organization with 52 soldiers against who belonged to the peasantry. The situation was even more problematic from an ideological perspective in the case of the 1st Kordun POJ, where out of Partisans, were peasants and ethnic Serbs.
The reason why the party paid such a considerable interest to the issue of looting is a rather simple one. Zaklada Friedrich Naumann, , p. However, the implica- tions and effects of the Serbian overrepresentation was problematic for the party, which wanted to change the ethnic composition in order to forestall inter-ethnic tension in NOP ranks. While dissent does not appear to have been rampant, ten- sions did occasionally arise and were present at the time of the arrival of Nord- land.
In a report from the HQ of the Banija POJ from 31 August , local of- ficers reported that a group of six Partisans had entered the command centre of the second battalion, disarmed the commanding officer and forced him to appear before the unit.
The first movement order was issued by the 4th Corps to the 2nd Brigade, 8th Kordun Division, on 19 November and contained the following mes- sage: The situation in the sector Glina-Petrinja demands that your brigade as soon as possible — by fast march — regroup in Topusko sector. The trucks that you will re- ceive should be used to transport those with boots, in other words those who can be used immediately for combat.
Barefooted soldiers should not be transported in trucks for now, but you should requisition wagons with which to transport them to Topusko sector. V, vol.
One was from the village of Majske Poljane towards the town sawmill and the other along the road from Maja River towards Glina. This initial attack was a success as the Partisan units managed to take and destroy the Jukinac bridge across Maja River and capture the seven sol- diers connected to the suicide incident. However, already at 10 the next day, an SS unit managed to retake the bridge in a skirmish that resulted in a total death toll of two dead and 4 wounded Partisans.
Meanwhile, it became even more important to gather intelligence about the strength of the opponent and about the defence in Glina itself.
Such informa- tion was gathered on the next day from the seven captured Danish soldiers.
The source does not say anything about their ultimate fate, but they were certainly not undressed and executed after being captured in Jukinac, as claimed in the Danish statements.
Each company was equipped with three heavy mortars and twelve light ma- chine-guns, while 4th company also had five cannons that were placed close to the bridge in Jukinac, the church, the school and the municipality building. The Danes also told them about reinforce- ments coming in from Petrinja in the form of two tanks and two additional ar- tillery pieces there was no information on the number of soldiers.
Since it can be expected that the enemy will intervene with strong forces from Petrinja tomorrow or the day after in order to save the garrison in Glina and in order not to lose time the morale of our forces is adequate , our staff has decided to attack Glina tomorrow at Our staff is convinced that we will be able to liquidate the garrison in Glina.
Our biggest problem is securing the rear and for that purpose we will need the maximal assistance from our comrades from Kor- dun. For that purpose, 8th Division needs to move out of its positions and carry out a fierce attack on Gora and organize its position for the purpose of securing the operation against Glina.
However, in a report written at The plan basically envisaged that 8th Division should block Glina by capturing Gora and Hrastovica from where there was a roundabout road that could be used for reinforcement of Glina. The main attack would be carried out by 7th Di- vision, which at its disposal had 4 brigades of soldiers each, 3 howitzers, 8 pieces of field artillery, 3 pieces of mountain artillery and 3 light tanks.
Mean- while, the division command would be moved to the village Prijeka to the south of Glina. Combined with already existing forces to the northwest including a 62 P.
Product Type Books. Digital Books. Late War Germans Product Make Warlord Games Products. Game system Bolt Action. Battle Zones Desert. Collection German Waffen-SS. Add to Wishlist Your current wishlist is not saved. Back in Stock Notification Notify me when this product becomes available: Availability Date: Many of these were of advanced age and of little use in modern warfare.
First, monthly re-training courses for oicers and NCOs were started in Minsk. In the second half of June , an oicer school was also opened for the training of new Home Guard oicers. Although courses in this school were supposed to last for six months, it was evac- uated to Vilnius on 29 June as a result of the Soviet advances. In some districts, for example Slutsk, the rank and ile soldiers and NCOs of the BKA who distinguished themselves in combat against partisans were promoted to NCOs and oicers respectively and, by April , there were already forty-ive such promotions.
However, the Slutsk district BKA chief Stepan Shnek maintained that those promoted were brave ighters and loyal to the national course, but weak commanders of the regular forces. Dakumenty i Materyialy London, , Many of them paid more attention to square-bashing and weapons study than to combat and tactical ield training.
Initially, he planned to create a 20,strong combat group bearing his name Kampfgruppe von Gottberg in Belarus, which was to include various auxiliary units operating at that time in Belarusian territory, and also BKA units. Since more people were mobi- lized into the Home Guard than Gottberg had envisaged, it was ultimately decided that Home Guard battalions would participate in anti-partisan combat either individually or as part of larger German units.
German commanders of this operation commended the Belarusian Home Guard soldiers who participated in this opera- tion. In this situation, it is little wonder that desertions to the Soviet and Polish par- tisans on the part of individual Home Guard soldiers, and even by entire units, started early on.
As has been noted above in the section dealing with the Belarusian auxiliary police , the large-scale anti-guerrilla operation claimed the lives of numerous victims who had little or nothing to do with the partisans. Around 11, able-bodied persons were shipped to forced labour in Germany in the course of the same operation.
Many voted for the latter option. Most of the Home Guard battalions were disbanded by their S. Here their fate was not much diferent from the fate of Belarusian auxiliary policemen who left Belarus. Later on, both these battalions were also transferred to the western front, where they stayed until the very end of the war.
His political line in Galicia contrasted greatly with the policy of Erich Koch, head of the Reich Commissariat of Ukraine, who strongly prohibited the creation of any military formations made up of Ukrainians in the territories under his authority.